Friday, January 17, 2020
Ethical Behavior and Machiavellianism Essay
The term ethical behavior is considered to be that behavior which is morally accepted. It is laid on the foundations of doing the right thing which is morally accepted. Machiavellianism is considered to be the behavior which is adopted to mislead and swindle others for personal benefits and profit. This paper seeks to analyze and evaluate the relationship between ethical behavior and Machiavellianism. Machiavellianism Machiavellianism is considered to be a widespread stereotype of ethical behavior. It is expected to be a supplementary construct that influences ethical behavior and ethical reasoning procedures. The concept was introduced by Niccolo Machiavelli who wrote Ã¢â¬ËThe PrinceÃ¢â¬â¢ which is a guide for acquiring power and using it. The main method for attaining power which he suggested was using manipulation. Hence, Machiavellianism is tendency and inclination of an individual to do whatever he or she wants in order to get his or her way. Machiavellian Principles and Ethical Conduct According to Machiavellian principles, there is clear and well-defined difference between reality and ideas. For example, equality and equity are idealistic values but partiality and bias is found every where. Ethics can direct and manage the private sector but expediency governs the public life. Consequently, an individual can be good at home but has to survive in professional life (Nelson & Gilbertson, 2002). Furthermore, Machiavellian principles dictate individuals to understand that there are no absolutes in workplace but only restrictive constraints which are applied based on the situation. It also states that success is the factor which can determine right and wrong. Virtue which is a type of ethical behavior is equal to power and competence in reaching goals. It also states that a virtuous man should think about himself when it is essential. Literature Review Experiential work also indicates that Machiavellianism influences ethical behavior. Cable and Dangello have recognized and acknowledged Machiavellianism as a qualities and characteristics which were found in graduate business studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics research. They also conducted a second research in Lebanon which indicated that Lebanese consumers who are residing in political turmoil and war are more Machiavellian and less humanistic (Cable and Dangello, 2000). Another research which was conducted by Christie and Geis demonstrated the relation between Machiavellianism and ethical behavior which suggested that individuals who are skeptical and doubting towards others are prone to behave unprofessionally. Machiavellianism is often associated with unconstructive and unhelpful behavior (Christie & Geis, 2002). According to Christie and Geis, Machiavellianism is considered to an unconstructive appellation which promotes an unprincipled and unethical method of influencing and controlling others in order to achieve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Gable and Topol demonstrated in their studies that Machiavellian individuals exhibit calm and unruffled lack of involvement and indifference which makes them less emotionally concerned and occupied with others. Machiavellianism and ethical behavior were investigated in ethic studies which were conducted by Nelson and Gilbertson. It was found out that Machiavellianism and ethical behavior of an individual is the key towards ethical decision making(Gable & Topol, 2004). Similar studies conducted by Christie and Geis examined that ethical behavior and Machiavellianism are important and significant factors for determining ethical conduct (Christie & Geis, 2002). Machiavellianism and ethical behavior studies by Nelson and Gilbertson suggested that Machiavellian individuals take no notice of ethics and enhance their own individual self. In simple words, the pressure to win and achieve specific targeted goals can cause unethical behavior to manifest itself (Nelson & Gilbertson, 2002) Relationship between Ethical Behavior and Machiavellianism Machiavellianism is a factor which plays an essential and significant role in influencing ethical behavior and decision making because it is associated with proclivity to influence others for the sake of personal benefits and achievements. For example, most researchers associate entrepreneurship with Machiavellian propensities which can lead to straightforward manipulation of others and ethical compromise (Cable and Dangello, 2000). In other words, entrepreneurs can follow Machiavellianism properties by acting master manipulators who can take immediate advantage of others. Studies indicate that individuals who follow the principles of Machiavellianism are often to be deceptive and indifferent towards ethical needs. Machiavellianism is believed to be a widespread and frequent behavior and it is found in ethical decision making scenarios. It is often associated with sex, age, ethnic origin and birth order. Conclusion Ethical behavior is defined as the action taken in accordance to what is morally accepted. On the other hand, Machiavellianism is defined as the action which an individual takes in order to gain his or her own benefit with the help of manipulative behavior. Studies have shown that Machiavellian principles promote negative behavior in individuals. It plays a vital role in influencing perceptions because it has a relationship with the tendency to influence others. Machiavellian individuals are known to show calm and indifferent attitudes and are not affected by emotions.It can be concluded that Machiavellianism is a negative concept which does not go with ethical conduct. References Cable, M. & Dangello, F. (2000). Job Involvement, Machiavellianism and Job Performance, Journal of Business and Psychology (9:2). Christie, R. & Geis,F. L. (2002). Studies in Machiavellianism. New York: Academic Press. Gable, M. & Topol, M. (2004). Machiavellianism and Job Satisfaction of Retailing Executive in a Specialty Store Chain, Psychological Reports Nelson, G. & Gilbertson, D. (2002). Machiavellianism Revisited, Journal of Business Ethics.